bookmark_borderCollagen Supplements

Aya Natural uses a blend of ingredient — vitamin E, shea butter, and lemon — that stimulates a powerful production of collagen resulting in firmer, lifted, tightened, and rejuvenated skin. This cream is great for both men and women with sensitive, dry, or combination skin specifically seeking a cream that will diminish natural dark spots, reduce wrinkles and fine lines, and effectively hydrate. Aya Natural provides products that are free of parabens, alcohol, and sulfates. Rae Vegan makes a collagen supplement that uses vitamin C and bamboo to encourage collagen production in the body. The brand Moon Juice does the same with their Collagen Protect product.

CBD-Tincture-Coconut-Flavored-Infographic--416x258.png (416×258)

Green vegetables contain the antioxidants which help in the removal of free radicals that disturb the production of collagen and DNA in the body. It also contains chlorophyll, which has antioxidant properties. At the wound site, physicians use to dress up with collagen as it helps in the production of new skin in the wounded area. Instead of getting second-hand collagen from a dead animal, it’s possible to eat collagen-boosting foods. And don’t forget that collagen is not the end-all be-all for skin health. Retinyl acetate is typically extracted from animal products and so is not vegan.

To keep skin firm and youthful looking, many turn to collagen supplements. Vitamin C is well-known for its role in promoting connective tissue healing after an injury or surgery and this is because of kratom tree its essential role in collagen production. Foods high in Vitamin C include dark, leafy greens, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, bell peppers, and some fruits like strawberries, citrus fruits, and kiwi.

You may also boost your body’s collagen production with the help of some plant-based foods that are high in proline, glycine, lysine, the main amino acids in collagen. Some of the plant foods include soy products, kidney beans, black beans, legumes, nuts, and seeds. If you are a strict ethical vegan, there are some vegan collagen alternatives out there for you. However, they are not the same as collagen and don’t have the same benefits. Rather, they are merely a supplement that promotes your body’s natural collagen production. In this article, you will learn about what collagen is along with what the benefits of collagen are.

Geltor’s animal-free collagen not only positions itself to cater to plant-based consumers, but it is also suitable for kosher, halal and paleo diets. Couple the suitability of this ingredient with the functional formulation properties and there is a wide opportunity for this ingredient to garner widespread acceptance. Courtesy of GeltorPrimaColl will cater to an expanding customer base that is interested in plant-based alternatives to traditional ingredients. While this trend has been growing for some time, collagen is an ingredient for which a convincing substitution has remained elusive. Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

But many health stores, including online shops, sell some form of vegan collagen or a vegan collagen booster. Individuals following a strict vegan lifestyle stick to a plant-based diet and avoid eating any source of animal protein. But as a lifestyle choice, this decision can extend much further. Many vegans eschew the use of animal products altogether, including leather shoes, belts, coats, and even brushes made from animal hair. This can even extend to cosmetics, many of which are traditionally made using animal products or produced with animal testing. Collagen is a family of proteins that make up the connective tissues in animals.

In fact, Baylor College of Medicine reports the plant contains vitamin C and provides anti-inflammatory benefits. One study published in the International Journal of Cosmetic Science found that your body may need vitamin C in order to properly store collagen . Turmeric helps stop the breakdown of cells in your body which, in turn, may slow down the aging process.

In addition to creating a more radiant complexion, this organic collagen powder also supports stronger hair and nails using biotin and other nutrient-rich botanicals. Rich in calcium, silica and phosphorous, this fair-trade collagen booster can be added to smoothies, shakes, coffee and more to enrich your skin care routine. With scientific studies lacking, the proof of vegan collagen boosters lies in the plant-based pudding, so to speak.

It also has biotin and organic acerola cherry, which are excellent sources of vitamin C and B complex. Amazing Grass has 15 grams of vegan protein, which makes it a suitable source of protein. It has a protein blend of peas and brown rice, which ensures you get the full spectrum of amino acids. The company claims that these ingredients are essential for collagen growth and restoring hydration in the skin and joints.

Nails

But if you can’t find a reputable source of vegan collagen, you still have a few options. The advent of a plant-based, inexpensive, and totally safe type of collagen offers many benefits to human health. But, as mentioned, others note that even collagen peptides are lacking hard enough evidence to support the theory that they can be absorbed into your blood stream in high quantities, as part of the process of digestion.

Anima Mundi Apothecary Organic Plant Based Collagen Boosting Supplement

It accounts for over 25% of all proteins in the human body and acts as a flexible structure in tissues such as skin, cartilage and bones, providing both structure and elasticity. Lastly, however, it is worth noting that many products that promote themselves as collagen may not contain collagen at all, either from vegan or non-vegan sources. Be they collagen drinks, powders, creams or supplements, many products marketed as collagen are somewhat misleading, as we will discuss later on. Rather than containing collagen itself, they instead contain ingredients and nutrients purported to boost or support the collagen in your body, which is very different.

With shark species under threat, public awareness on the importance of protecting and conserving shark and all marine aquaculture is at its most prominent. Sharks do more than just benefit the food and supplement industry, they’re essential for maintaining marine and freshwater ecosystems and global diversity. Overfishing of sharks, both primary and secondary caught, is the biggest threat to shark species. Collagen is a protein formed of long-chain amino acids and is responsible for the structure, function and mechanical properties of the epidermis, cartilage and tendons. Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid,Enhances collagen synthesis.

What Is Collagen?

A number of them still exist out in the wild, people who for one reason or another avoid eating land animals but do regularly consume marine animals. If it jibes with your ethics, marine collagen is a legitimate source of collagen for vegetarians. The constituent amino acids are nearly identical to the amino acids of mammalian collagen with very similar proportions and properties. Another tasty, easy way to add vitamin C to your diet is broccoli. A cup of cooked or raw broccoli delivers a full day’s dose of vitamin C, which plays an essential role in building collagen.

This means that it will not be affected by enzymes and will be able to stimulate collagen and elastin production. If the supplement contains ingredients like phytessence wakame, cynergy TK and manuka honey, there’s a high chance that it is effective. Since launching in 2015, Geltor has been provideing collagen to the personal care and cosmetics industries – including its first product, award-winning skincare ingredient N-Collage. PrimaColl is Geltor’s first product aimed specifically at the food and beverage space.

Sleep deprivation, a sedentary lifestyle, excessive use of alcohol and other drugs, and chronic stress are all lifestyle factors linked to a range of health impacts. These can take a toll will cbd oil fail a drug test on your immune system and are considered collagen diminishers, regardless of the exact type of diet you follow. Collagen is a naturally occurring organic substance produced by animals.

Best Selling In Collagen

Most people don’t synthesize enough of it, hence the joint problems many animal food abstainers experience. Powdered collagen supplements aren’t the most convenient thing to take when you’re on the go—which is why this product is so innovative. Made with marine collagen, the strawberry and lemon tablets can be dropped into a glass of water to create a fruity drink. If you want to get some extra benefits from your collagen supplement, this powder from Ancient Nutrition is a great option. It not only contains five different types of collagen , but also vitamin C and probiotics. It’s earned over 10,000 five-star reviews from happy Amazon customers.

And for older people, whose bodies make less collagen, adding more of what’s needed to build something won’t necessarily enhance someone’s ability to do so. It also depends on what the important nutrients are paired with, such as the potential absorption issue of putting vitamin C in a base of rice bran. This vegan and non-GMO formula contains plant proteins like G-lysine, L-lysine, and L-Proline, as well as other collagen boosters like silica, zinc, vitamin A and E and biotin. This organic collagen booster from Sun Warrior contains wheatgrass, kale, spirulina and special ingredient hyaluronic acid and more. It also comes in an array of flavors like salted caramel and piña colada in case you’re tired of plain old vanilla. Is it any wonder that collagen has become one of the buzziest ingredients around?

If you dream of waking up each morning with glowing skin, consider this rich night treatment from Algenist’s Genius collection. Additionally, algae-derived alguronic acid minimizes the appearance of lines and wrinkles while ceramides and Mary thistle hydrate and support the skin’s barrier. The use of silica, collagen boosters, polyphenolic pomegranate and a range of antioxidants and amino acids to pack health benefits and collagen production into the mix.

Best Collagen Capsule Or Collagen Pill

It is usually made by boiling down the connective tissues of cows or pigs. Our outer boxes are also FSC certified recycled boxes made from materials sourced from sustainably managed forests that preserve biological diversity while benefiting the lives of our community. When you order from NUTRAVIVA, you are assured that our collagen and protein products are of the highest quality. Healthy Origins Natural UC-II tops the list as Consumer Labs’ top pick for joint pain. One single capsule of the supplement provides 10 grams of collagen, which is the amount typically used in most of the clinical trials on collagen and joint pain.

Our Vegan Collagen Builder can be consumed by anyone looking to improve their skin, hair, bone, and tissue health. This could be healthy adults, ageing adults, athletes, and even young adults looking for a healthy supplement. The key molecule involved in skin moisture is hyaluronic acid that has unique capacity in retaining water. Progressive reduction of the size of the HA polymers in skin as a result of aging has also been reported. Thus, the epidermis loses the principle molecule responsible for binding and retaining water molecules, resulting in loss of skin moisture.

Sydney Greene, MS, RDN is a Registered Dietitian Nutritionist focusing on integrative, customized nutrition counseling and coaching for individuals in recovery from substance use. She also works with individuals who are looking to change their relationship to food and body image. “I started collagen to see if it would help with my brittle, thin fingernails and to my amazement, not only did my fingernails become super strong like when I was in my 20s, my knees don’t hurt as bad either,” one wrote. “I think that it is also helping my super fine hair grow faster than normal.” “I gave it a full month before leaving a review and just finished the last scoop yesterday. I put it in my coffee every morning, never noticed an aftertaste, and it dissolved easily,” wrote one reviewer.

New vegan collagen powder is cropping up beside animal-based collagen on store shelves. Skincare products that contain vitamin C, zinc, and silica can help boost your skin’s health and appearance that much sooner. The same applies to skincare products that contain antioxidants, namely vitamin A and E. It is also worth noting that products that contain these nutrients can destroy free radicals that contribute to premature aging.

Since only animals make collagen, any supplement which contains it will be non-vegan. Supplements typically derive it from cows , shark , or chicken sternal cartilage. In your skin, type 2 levels are relatively stable even into old age. Unlike vitamins, minerals, proteins, and pretty much every other micro and macro nutrient, collagen is not a singular unit that can be absorbed through digestion. Since consistency is key for supplements, right now we don’t offer our products as a one-time purchase. If you want to just try products for a month, you can place an order and pause future deliveries.

When I first tried collagen powders, I bought a strawberry lemonade flavor that I mixed with cold water. Also, remember that it’s possible to take too much of a certain vitamin. The mix also has pea protein from Belgium, vitamin C-rich lucuma from Peru, and aloe and tremella from China.

“There are a wealth of fruits and vegetables that offer collagen-boosting nutrients,” says Caglia. “The protein in avocado helps support the structures of collagen and elastin in your skin while the fat keeps your skin hydrated,” adds Dr. Engelman. Collagen’s been making headlines in health and wellness for several years. However, some doubt the efficacy of eating collagen for better health.

A healthy, balanced diet is also beneficial for collagen production. According to the brand, each of its plant-based ingredients is freeze-dried to preserve the quality of the micronutrients. Not only does the product help to build collagen, but thanks to its antioxidant content, it also helps to protect existing collagen fibers in your skin. Collagen is the most plentiful protein we have; it helps to improve skin structure and helps blood to clot. Many experts liken it to glue, as the supporting structures it creates give skin elasticity and strength. Right now vegan collagen will cost you, on average, between $20 and $30 for a 20-day supply.

“I thought there was no such thing as plant-based collagen.” You’re correct, there isn’t. What you’re seeing is the advertising world’s version of sleight-of-hand maneuvering. The positive effects of collagen are well-known and widely publicized.

Furnished farms have more space for chickens and easy access to nests, perches, and dust baths. All of our products are created with where can i purchase cbd oil optimal absorption in mind. We generally recommend that you take our supplements together with a meal such as breakfast or lunch.

Mary Ruth Vegan Collagen Support Gummies

Where a lack of collagen may be most noticeable is in the skin. When you shop through retailer links on our site, we may earn affiliate commissions. 100% of the fees we collect are used to support our nonprofit mission.

Yet, as the popularity of the vegan lifestyle grows, so brands are working to cater to this demand. Vegan beauty products have changed and improved dramatically over time. Vegan collagen, made of bio-incorporating plant extracts, makes a very good alternative for those who follow a strict vegan diet. Now, vegan collagen give similar benefits to humans without animal cruelty. Many people have already started hearing about what is vegan collagen and whether it will help them achieve youthful skin.

Not all gelling agents come from animal sources, and what’s used to make vegetarian- and vegan-friendly gummies won’t contain collagen. Vegan gelatin is made from agar-agar or other plant-based sources. Collagen can be a confusing issue for vegans because it is something that comes in many forms and is used in a wide range of ways in various different products. The word itself is something of an umbrella term that includes all of these applications and, of course, it should be noted that collagen is something present in our own bodies. There are many potential medical benefits to this technology, as collagen is used for much more than just dietary supplements.

Lysine also supports absorption of calcium, iron, and zinc, helps in the production of enzymes, antibodies, and various hormones, as well as supporting healthy immune function. Vegan collagen is an excellent option for everyone, even if you’re not on a vegan diet. I did some research on the vegan collagen supplements in the market today and tried some myself. I’ll tell you which ones may actually help you obtain healthier hair, skin, and nails.

I make sure I eat a healthy, balanced, vegan diet (it’s not difficult to do at all, check out my vegan grocery list if you want some guidance), but I do also use one of the best vegan collagen supplements. Your body’s natural collagen production slows down by the time you’re in your late twenties. This, unfortunately, increases the risk of the breakdown of joints and can eventually lead to sagging skin and wrinkles. Hydrate, revitalize & rejuvenate your hair, skin, nails & joints with our vegan collagen supplement. You have probably heard a lot about the many benefits of collagen, especially when it comes to keeping your skin healthy and looking great. But aside from that, collagen has many other health benefits that your body needs.

You might need extra support with collagen for a variety of different reasons, one of them being if you eat a mostly plant-based or vegan diet, as collagen comes from animal protein. “Collagen production naturally declines with age,” Favela says. “It’s getting a lot of attention for supporting with typical signs of aging in the skin, like thinning skin and fine lines,” she says. While products branded as vegan collagen are readily available on the market today in supplements and beauty products, they do not provide a source of true collagen. Instead, the vegan collagen currently available—commonly referred to as collagen builders or boosters—provides the body with nutrients known to enhance the production of collagen within the body. Although eggs don’t contain connective tissues like many other animal products, egg whites do have large amounts of proline, one of the amino acids necessary for collagen production.

As said, collagen, which is a protein, is naturally occurring in the human body and makes up around a quarter of the total protein within our bodies. It is the main component of connective tissue and is present in our bones, tendons, muscles, ligaments, skin, teeth, eyes, gut, hair and blood vessels. Another way to get the benefits of collagen as a vegan is to take individual amino acid supplements. These are what many vegan-friendly companies sell instead of pure collagen supplements. You can add these vitamins and minerals through your diet, instead of a supplement, to help you meet your amino acids needs. The most abundant amino acids in collagen are glycine, lysine, and proline.

bookmark_borderHow To Promote A Blog Post Effectively

Every company person knows the fact a fruitful company depends considerably on the existence of an audio advertising strategy. In the absence of this type of strategy, all of your other initiatives are essentially useless. This really is all the more true when it comes to online organizations, as your competition is fiercer on the Internet. We could get as far as expressing that your Web company will quickly arrive at an end if you crash to produce great use of all assets that you’ve at your disposal when it comes to generating quality traffic to your online site.

Your advertising strategy ought to be a complex one and includes a variety of search engine optimization services, such for instance article distribution, directory submissions, cultural bookmarking, and website posting. These are some of the top ways to promote a web page and the expense of such seo services are nothing set alongside the advantages they bring. Only consider what advantages would derive from having thousands as well as thousands of prospective customers visiting your website every day and you’ll certainly concur that search engine optimization services are an investment worth making. Guest post

An SEO post is one of the most effective ways of generating long-haul traffic, particularly if applicable material is submitted on private blogs. Needless to say that your freshly produced website is likely to be found by key search motors faster than it would be if you had been to only wait for that to take place without resorting to any advertising strategies. Moreover, a seo post will also support improve your position with the most important search motors, which, will change into more targeted traffic to your online site.

Once you’ve handled to have continuous quality traffic to your website, you decide to help keep your guests finding their way back, but more regularly than perhaps not, getting to the stage where you’ve to show unexpected customers into devoted types is probably the most difficult task. And this really is where each one of these seo strategies, including website submitting, comes into place. However, a seo post is not a thing that everybody can do. Wherever you post your article is of the utmost value and therefore is the caliber of the text and its relevance for search engines. Along with all this, website submitting can be a really time-consuming task. Therefore, it’s recommended that you make use of a professional website submitting service.

A professional website submitting support could be the surest method to take advantage of all of the advantages that derive from applying all of the advertising possibilities that the Web provides. SEO specialists can create articles that can be abundant with applicable keywords and post them manually on tens or a huge selection of private quality blogs. Quite simply, an excellent website submitting support can help raise your rank with key search motors and create targeted traffic to your online site.

A seo post is really a cheap, yet equally effective alternative to an expensive advertising campaign. It can be a really powerful advertising software, offered it’s employed by skilled seo specialists. Important material and submitting on well-ranked websites is something that only a professional website submitting support can provide.

bookmark_borderPortable Basketball Hoops – A Great Source Of Enjoyment For Kids

Well, portable basketball hoops are a thrilling source of enjoyment for all the kids. However, most of us don’t pay much attention towards research while purchasing them. You need to spend some time in research and acquire the right basketball hoop for your little ones. If you are able to find a nice portable basketball hoop then joel embiid injury your kids will surely have a blast at home. According to me, buying such sports gear is an incredible idea for all of you. We are going to offer you some information regarding this sports gear.

The portable basketball hoop that you purchase should be absolutely light weight and easy to carry. It should also be a bright-colored one, as kids love vibrant colors. Once you bring it home you can invite your friends for a small game of basketball. Some of the advantages of portable basketball hoops are:

  • Appropriate backboard system.
  • Light weight and portable.
  • Pretty simple to install.
  • Looks absolutely professional.

However, one important thing that you must remember is that you need to assist your kids on each step. One thing is for sure that they will certainly need your help from time to time. These kinds of basketball hoops can be easily installed in your kids’ room. The height can be easily adjusted as per your requirements. All you need to do is to read the user manual carefully and put all the parts together.

Before hanging the basketball hoop you need to remember a lot of things.

The whole gaming system should match up to the interiors of your room. It should be light-colored so that small kids find it pretty interesting. A freestanding pole will be used in its installation so you must purchase it as quickly as possible. One more crucial thing to note is that the backboard should be opaque. Once you have installed it you need to check whether it is in proper alignment or not. You can even ask your child to throw a ball or two for checking out the functioning of the system.

If you are purchasing a basketball sports gear online then you need to reassure that all the nuts, decals and bolts are included in the container. You will certainly need all these items in the process of installation. You got to read the above mentioned points carefully. I am sure these points would help you out in the best possible way. Enjoy a game of basketball with your kids.

bookmark_borderWhat is Sports Investing?

Like the stock market and the forex markets, sports investing can provide you with good returns on your investment. Sport investing can even be better than trading in the stock market or in the forex markets.
It’s possible to enjoy your favorite sports and also make money. If you are knowledgeable about What sports, or willing to invest the time and effort necessary to understand the factors that affect sports betting decisions and make informed decisions, you could also become active in sports investing. You will be able to open up another avenue for earning extra cash. You can’t call it gambling if you look at it right. Like any other business, it is important to take the time to learn the statistical information available from the sports books that permit you to place your wagers. The accuracy of their predictions and picks is based on mathematical and statistical algorithms and not instinct. Therefore, they have a greater chance of winning consistently. You will succeed at sports investing, not gambling if it is done in a systematic fashion.
Brokers are able to analyze your financial and business information in order to help you choose the best stocks or currencies for you to invest in. Even with all the best planning, you could find yourself in a downward spiral and your efforts to analyze the situation may be wasted. You must also time your selling carefully, even if the sale is profitable. Selling too quickly can mean you’re wasting money. Loss can be caused by selling too late.

Many of these fears can be alleviated with sports investing. In the sense that you wait until the game, the timing of placing your bets can be limited. There is no selling period. Your profit or loss can be realized immediately after the game ends. Sport investing is a great investment because you don’t have to fear recession or falling into a downward spiral. Because recession does not affect sporting events. Sports entertainment is on the rise worldwide. The demand doesn’t drop in any economy. Therefore, investing in sports always puts the odds in your favour.
In the end, the economy is not a concern. You can simply research, understand and analyze your statistics about sports betting, then go ahead and place your bets.

bookmark_borderHow To Evaluate Market Viability Of Product Ideas

Like it or not, you are more like your parents than you think, at least in terms of your consumption patterns. Many of the things you buy and don’t buy are a result of what your parents bought when you were growing up. Products such as the brand of soap and toothpaste your parents bought and used, and even the “brand” of politics they leaned toward are examples of the products you may favor as an adult.

Kacen’s view is further supported by Hoyer and Macinnis stating that there are a number of factors that can affect the purchasing process. In this case the purchase process is delayed and consumer may consider buying the product through online stores rather than visiting traditional physical stores. There is a common consensus among many researchers and academics that consumer purchasing theory involves a number of different stages.

Though it has overtaken Sony, it still needs to deal with a significant threat from South Korea’s LG Group and potential competitors from China and Taiwan. Although Samsung has a comfortable lead-time due to its top-notch technology and constant innovation, this should not lead to complacency. Samsung should continue investing in technology and design capabilities, and marketing and brand management activi­ties to maintain lead over its rivals that it has so tirelessly built over the past decade. In 2013, LG Group announced that it would spend USD 57 billion on R&D to take on rivals. A large part of the R&D spending will be focused on smartphone software, HD and smart TV and next generation flexible and transparent displays. In 2014, Samsung announced a weaker-than-expected profit forecast, driven by a slowdown in mobile phone sales and intensified global competition from new and old competitors.

This contrasts against the tightwads who does spend hours weighing options. You’ll target these consumers at different levels of the sales funnel. They don’t spend hours comparing products or analyzing their decisions. To convince tightwads to buy your product, you have to make it as appealing as possible. Overcome all possible objections, provide a bargain nobody can refuse, and make sure you live up to your brand promises.

This conveys that consumers will make their choice of products or services depending on the OSL. An over stimulated person is likely to seek for rest in a quiet, isolated place or holiday (Examples can be of various Resorts/Vacation halts etc. which seem to be invitations for over stimulated persons). Consumer researchers have examined the relationship between how long cbd work for dogs personality traits and differences in the stimulation which, in turn, may be related to consumer behaviour. Researches have indicated high optimum stimulation levels with consumers who display more willingness to take risks, try new products, be innovative etc. It presumes that man is an economic and rational person and does act under self-motive.

Food and Drug Administration has warned shoppers to not give these treats to their pets. How many canine have been relegated to back-yard residing as a result of they bounce throughout family and visitors each time anybody walks via the door? Then when somebody goes out to go to the lonesome canine, the jumping is worse as a end result of the dog is much more excited to see somebody. It’s easiest to nip this in the bud in case your canine is a pet, however even adult canines may be taught to maintain 4 on the floor.

Additionally, this salve comes highly-consumer rated advert has a monitor record of success following its software. Pro Restore CBD+ is probably certainly one of the finest CBD ache aid lotions of 2020 as it’s doctor-approved and formulated for fast-acting results. First, you should always contemplate the quantity of CBD contained inside the product. In CBD topical functions, the most expensive merchandise included within the product shall be CBD. The quantity of CBD in a topical application ought to carefully mirror the price and affordability of the chosen product. If the topical lotion accommodates a significantly lesser quantity of CBD in comparability with the price, different options could also be higher fitted to you.

A Shopkick study found 42% of shoppers say low prices are the most important incentive when making a purchase. In our view, the future of the consumer industry is neither as unknowable nor as predictable as some suggest. The smartest retailers and CPG companies will study and begin to act on the known factors, while also ensuring they are nimble enough to respond to unexpected developments. By deliberating—and executing—on their answers to these five questions, companies will be well positioned to become the winners of tomorrow. And they must digitize not only back-office functions, but consumer-facing functions as well.

Do not get carried away by advertisements only or believe on the words of the seller. Similarly inform offers if product and services of companies are of substandard. The responsibility to be aware and to understand the environmental consequences of our consumption. We should recognize our individual and social responsibility to conserve natural resources and protect the earth for future generations. Means the right to acquire the knowledge and skill to be an informed consumer throughout life.

To cater to smartphone users in-store, be sure your store offers free WiFi on a separate guest network. Now is also a good time to set up a loyalty program that has a mobile app (if you don’t already have one). The more you can engage customers with your business on their phones, the better. What’s more, digital loyalty programs that alert shoppers to offers when they’re in-store or encourage additional purchases can help drive sales. This is especially appealing to the 65% of Digital Consumers who like getting personalized communications and recommendations from retailers. The most innovative companies regularly tap into external sources of skills and expertise, particularly in areas outside their core competencies.

Women drive 70-80% of all consumer purchasing, through a combination of their buying power and influence. Influence means that even when a woman isn’t paying for something herself, she is often the influence or veto vote behind someone else’s purchase. Whereas in our 2014 survey 40 percent of Americans said they were living paycheck to paycheck, only 28 percent made that claim in 2015. Only 23 percent of survey respondents, down from a high of 48 percent in 2009, said they are finding it harder to make ends meet than they did a year ago.

Depending on the extent of involvement and motivation, the consumer will comply with considered one of two possible routes. The central route is when the buyer is very concerned in each side of the purchase. Unless you observe your progress, you haven’t any strategy of understanding whether or not or not consumers are aware of your merchandise.

When consumers find it easy to track their savings from using a product, they are more willing to try new green products—especially those that cost more. They also feel more confident about their eco-friendly purchases when they what is cbd oil? understand how the products help the environment. At long last, the impulse to go green is spreading faster than a morning glory. In almost every opinion poll, consumers say that they are very concerned about climate change.

The internal and external forces and influences interact in highly complex ways, affecting the individual’s total pattern of behaviour as well as his buying behaviour. Target market and target audience are similar terms which are used to denote market segments which the business wants what is the strongest cbd oil you can buy to target to, but both the terms have different practical implications. Concentrated marketing refers to the practice of directing every marketing effort to a single segment of the market. For example, selling auto parts only to auto manufacturers is a concentrated marketing strategy.

“Demand” refers to the desire for a good or service in the marketplace. Generally, if all other factors are equal, demand for a product will fall as its price increases. In addition to store locations, they include the music played at stores, the lighting, temperature, and even the smells you experience. Perhaps you’ve visited the office of an apartment complex and noticed how great it looked and even smelled.

Other wants, similar to shelter, clothing, and security, tend to be enduring. Still other needs come up at completely different points in time in an individual’s life. For instance, during grade school and high school, your social needs in all probability rose to the forefront. Perhaps this prompted you to purchase certain kinds of clothing or digital units. Some shopping for situation depicts low consumer involvement but important brand variations.

bookmark_borderAdvantages of Smart Phone Barcode Scanners

The initial type of applications to keep in mind as it pertains to increasing your living production is apps related to operating and obtaining your path around. They are GPS apps, and they primarily change your smart phone in to a small portable GPS device. These programs enable you to simply plug in your local area and you will be able to see regional eateries as well as the addresses of your pals and family.

Bing Maps Navigation is an ideal request that will help you complete only that. That is essentially a smart telephone version of the wildly common web site on the internet that lets people select in guidelines and look for locations. Google’s Maps Request offers satellite and road views that different mobile apps do not provide.

Company programs for the LG Thrill will also be extremely important since they can support people stay structured and produce living much easier for us. Organizational programs may contain apps that allow you to with scheduling and conference sessions and deadlines, as well as applications at that help you add up calendars and even develop your own personal to accomplish lists through the touchscreen and typing efficiency of the phones. It is becoming more difficult to remain along with things today in modern life, as most people have so many different obligations to have a tendency to, so when you can change your cell phone into an ally to help you keep connected and current with modern living, then it’s value taking advantage of.  Shycocan

Mobile Shopping has also become remarkably popular and that’s why there are lots of looking applications obtainable in the Application Market. Most of these applications may give you recommendations and handles and results to the closest malls, retailers, supermarkets, and other areas of contemporary life that you may be enthusiastic about locating in the real world. You may also use such programs to see a number of reviews of shops that will allow you to figure out which keep you are interested in visiting or getting things from.

As you will see, there are several features concerning the LG Thrill can be advantageous to day-to-day living through a number of applications, including programs for operating, buying, and work. Along the way, it would not be considered a poor strategy to look in to some extras such as a data wire, an incident, monitor guard, and a Wireless headset. With a information wire you will have a way to move documents from your own PC to your telephone and the Wireless headset enables you talk hands-free while you travel which is often very advantageous to your safety.

their residence to review if the storage door closed. Acquire some little bit of mind and do not worry about turning everything off before you leave. You are able to turn everything off without actually being there. Hook up to the consumer program, shut storage door and check always any components you may have forgotten. A smart home will also help stop you on-time.

Simplify your house and operate the Home Theater music, video, and several other parts all in one remote control. One remote control is an easy and convenient solution to perform music in virtually any space at anytime. If you prefer audio, use the multi-room sound feature and balance the acoustics in your home. You may be environmentally friendly and enjoy an ideal atmosphere in every room with lighting control. Dimming your lights uses less energy, therefore saving you money. Enjoy control from everywhere with a good phone or net connection. Acquire some bit of mind and monitor your house security while on the road.

bookmark_borderMistakes To Be Avoided When Questing For a Full-Proof Business Insurance

A single ignite can collection a shop on fire. A simple slip can lead to a lengthy and costly law suit. You can awaken the very next day and your corporate vehicle isn’t on its parking slot. If there’s one thing every company operator knows, it’s the fact that there’s nothing specific and it’s important to cut back chance to the very minimum.

Many company owners fall under the lure of maybe not finding the right company insurance coverage. Let us dissect that statement further. It is not enough to make certain your business. Industrial company insurance must certanly be your failsafe. Meaning, your business protect must certanly be a thing that encompasses all possible scenarios.

Pinpointing All the Dangers Associated with Your Company

The first faltering step in deciding the proper Business insurance for your enterprise is completing a comprehensive audit of your entire company operations from begin to finish. Make sure that number stone is left unturned. If you are the master, there’s a large probability that you may not be aware of every thing that’s occurring in your daily company operations, therefore it is best to create in all of your managers along with the key employees to make sure that you don’t skip anything.

Knowing the Various Kinds of Company Insurance

There are four key broad kinds of industrial company insurance.

The very first class is the absolute most popular – company property insurance. To put it simply, this kind of insurance will give you monetary reimbursements, if your business attributes (i.e. Your office, your machineries, etc.) were broken or destroyed.

The second basic classification of company insurance is liability insurance. In the event that you injured a person or broken a house during the perform of your business, this kind of insurance will look after that. Like, if you are a cafe operator, and somebody slipped within your restaurant due to a built consume, you need to use your liability insurance to protect for the victim’s hospitalisation expense.

Next could be the car insurance which can be ostensibly similar to your own personal vehicle insurance. It will protect the damages inflicted in your company-owned cars including these resulting from collision accidents.

Finally, the umbrella industrial company insurance doesn’t perform a certain role. Somewhat, it stretches the limits of one’s different insurance policies. It are often used to protect other activities beyond those that are covered by your liability, property and car insurance plans

Adequately Trading Towards Your Insurance Procedures

By pinpointing all the parts in your operations which could trigger financial failures to your organization, you will be able to recognize which kinds of insurance you need. Aside from choosing an insurance class, you similarly require to make sure that you are investing enough towards these company insurance policies.

Like, in the event that you work a resort company with many luxurious vehicles to move your guests, you need to spend heavily on car insurance and the plan you need to get must have a high premium. You can’t have a $30,000 BMW luxurious sedan and only have $5,000 worth of car insurance.

bookmark_borderSecret Behind Technology Blogging: A Best Niche In Blogging

It is no secret that there is a secret behind technology blogging; it is one of the best niches in blogging. Blogging about technology is one of the best ways to get ahead in modern society. In fact, technology blogging is the best niche in blogging these days for anyone who wants to start up a successful business.

If you plan to create a new business or any successful business ventures, one of the best ways to do so is to consider the technology niche in blogging.

The Secrets of Niche Blogging: Technology

These days there are so many technologies to choose from, it’s hard not to blog about them. Some popular examples of technology blogs include:

iPhone how to guides and tutorials

Information and technology news

Technology updates and rumors

The latest technological breakthroughs

Android

Windows and Mac

Technology Editorials and Opinion Pieces

Technology blogs are the perfect accompaniment to a day job although many people find running a niche technology blog can be exciting and take up a bit of time on the side.

How To Run A Successful Secret Technology Niche Blogging Business

It doesn’t take very long to get a niche technology blog up and running. All one need to do is set up a blog account, which is easily done through WordPress or any other free blogging module.

Typically it helps to add a new blog post at least once or twice a week, if not daily. This helps to compete with ultra high-ranking websites. The technology niche is one of the simplest niches to write about.

There are tons of information readily available about most forms of technology. There is always something new in the news about the latest iPhone, or what some star or celebrity has done with their Mac, or latest technology device.

The other approach to technology is writing about how you made money using technology. Most people want nothing more than to learn about how they can make money using technology. And, that is essentially what you do when you create a niche technology blog… make money using technology.

Another great niche in the technology arena is a blog focusing on general technological advances and information. However, the competition for a niche that broad however, may be very high, especially when it comes to purchasing AdSense revenue. If you can narrow your technology niche down significantly, to something very narrow, then you will reap the benefits.

Good, narrow niches are well thought out. Some examples may include very detailed subjects and niche topics, including:

iPhone covers and cases

Android Travel Phones

Mac laptop covers and cases

Windows technological breakthroughs

The more narrow the subject material, the more likely you are to select keywords that bring in targeted audience members. There is also less likely to be competition for your keywords. You want to pay as little as possible to attract AdSense revenues. This is how to make the most bang for your buck when blogging on technology.

Remember that the secret is out; technology is a great niche to take advantage of. People are constantly seeking new and exciting information about technology. So discover the areas you can write better about, and dig in. Discover for yourself the secret behind technology blogging and find a good niche in the technology blogging that you and your business can get benefit from.

bookmark_borderLeaping Into the 6th Technology Revolution

We’re at risk of missing out on some of the most profound opportunities offered by the technology revolution that has just begun.

Yet many are oblivious to the signs and are in danger of watching this become a period of noisy turmoil rather than the full-blown insurrection needed to launch us into a green economy. What we require is not a new spinning wheel, but fabrics woven with nanofibers that generate solar power. To make that happen, we need a radically reformulated way of understanding markets, technology, financing, and the role of government in accelerating change. But will we understand the opportunities before they disappear?

Seeing the Sixth Revolution for What It Is

We are seven years into the beginning of what analysts at BofA Merrill Lynch Global Research call the Sixth Revolution. A table by Carlotta Perez, which was presented during a recent BofA Merrill Lynch Global Research luncheon hosted by Robert Preston and Steven Milunovich, outlines the revolutions that are unexpected in their own time that lead to the one in which we find ourselves.

 

  • 1771: Mechanization and improved water wheels
  • 1829: Development of steam for industry and railways
  • 1875: Cheap steel, availability of electricity, and the use of city gas
  • 1908: Inexpensive oil, mass-produced internal combustion engine vehicles, and universal electricity
  • 1971: Expansion of information and tele-communications
  • 2003: Cleantech and biotech

 

The Vantage of Hindsight

Looking back at 1971, we know that Intel’s introduction of the microprocessor marked the beginning of a new era. But in that year, this meant little to people watching Mary Tyler Moore and The Partridge Family, or listening to Tony Orlando & Dawn and Janis Joplin. People would remember humanity’s first steps on the Moon, opening relations between US and China, perhaps the successful completion of the Human Genome Project to 99.99% accuracy, and possibly the birth of Prometea, the first horse cloned by Italian scientists.

 

According to Ben Weinberg, Partner, Element Partners, “Every day, we see American companies with promising technologies that are unable to deploy their products because of a lack of debt financing. By filling this gap, the government will ignite the mass deployment of innovative technologies, allowing technologies ranging from industrial waste heat to pole-mounted solar PV to prove their economics and gain credibility in the debt markets.” 

 

Flying beneath our collective radar was the first floppy disk drive by IBM, the world’s first e-mail sent by Ray Tomlinson, the launch of the first laser printer by Xerox PARC and the Cream Soda Computer by Bill Fernandez and Steve Wozniak (who would found the Apple Computer company with Steve Jobs a few years later). 

Times have not changed that much. It’s 2011 and many of us face a similar disconnect with the events occurring around us. We are at the equivalent of 1986, a year on the cusp of the personal computer and the Internet fundamentally changing our world. 1986 was also the year that marked the beginning of a major financial shift into new markets. Venture Capital (VC) experienced its most substantial finance-raising season, with approximately $750 million, and the NASDAQ was established to help create a market for these companies.

Leading this charge was Kleiner Perkins Caulfield & Beyers (KPCB), a firm that turned technical expertise into possibly the most successful IT venture capital firm in Silicon Valley. The IT model looked for a percentage of big successes to offset losses: an investment like the $8 million in Cerent, which was sold to Cisco Systems for $6.9 billion, could make up for a lot of great ideas that didn’t quite make it.

Changing Financial Models

But the VC model that worked so well for information and telecommunications doesn’t work in the new revolution. Not only is the financing scale of the cleantech revolution orders of magnitude larger than the last, this early in the game even analysts are struggling to see the future.

Steven Milunovich, who hosted the BofA Merrill Lynch Global Research lunch, remarked that each revolution has an innovation phase which may last for as long as 25 years, followed by an implementation phase of another 25. Most money is made in the first 20 years, so real players want to get in early. But the question is: Get in where, for how much and with whom?

There is still market scepticism and uncertainty about the staying power of the clean energy revolution. Milunovich estimates that many institutional investors don’t believe in global warming, and adopt a “wait and see” attitude complicated by government impasse on energy security legislation. For those who are looking at these markets, their motivation ranges from concerns about oil scarcity, supremacy in the “new Sputnik” race, the shoring up of homeland security and – for some – a concern about the effects of climate change. Many look askance at those who see that we are in the midst of a fundamental change in how we produce and use energy. Milunovich, for all these reasons, is “cautious in the short term, bullish on the long.”

The Valley of Death

Every new technology brings with it needs for new financing. In the sixth revolution, with budget needs 10 times those of IT, the challenge is moving from idea to prototype to commercialization. The Valley of Death, as a recent Bloomberg New Energy Finance whitepaper, Crossing the Valley of Death pointed out, is the gap between technology creation and commercial maturity.

But some investors and policy makers continue to hope that private capital will fuel this gap, much as it did the last. They express concern over the debt from government programs like the stimulus funds (American Recovery and Reinvestment Act) which have invested millions in new technologies in the clean energy sector, as well as helping states with rebuilding infrastructure and other projects. They question why the traditional financing models, which made the United States the world leader in information technology and telecommunications, can’t be made to work today, if the Government would just get out of the way.

But analysts from many sides of financing believe that government support, of some kind, is essential to move projects forward, because cleantech and biotech projects require a much larger input of capital in order to get to commercialization. This gap not only affects commercialization, but is also affecting investments in new technologies, because financial interests are concerned that their investment might not see fruition – get to commercial scale.

How new technologies are radically different from the computer revolution.

Infrastructure complexity

This revolution is highly dependent on an existing – but aging – energy infrastructure. Almost 40 years after the start of the telecommunications revolution, we are still struggling with a communications infrastructure that is fragmented, redundant, and inefficient. Integrating new sources of energy, and making better use of what we have, is an even more complex – and more vital – task.

According to “Crossing the Valley of Death,” the Bloomberg New Energy Finance Whitepaper,

 

“The events of the past few years confirm that it is only with the public sector’s help that the Commercialization Valley of Death can be addressed, both in the short and the long term. Only public institutions have ‘public benefits’ obligations and the associated mandated risk-tolerance for such classes of investments, along with the capital available to make a difference at scale. Project financiers have shown they are willing to pick up the ball and finance the third, 23rd, and 300th project that uses that new technology. It is the initial technology risk that credit committees and investment managers will not tolerate.” 

 

Everything runs on fuel and energy, from our homes to our cars to our industries, schools, and hospitals. Most of us have experienced the disconnect we feel when caught in a blackout: “The air-conditioner won’t work so I guess I’ll turn on a fan,” only to realize we can’t do either. Because energy is so vital to every aspect of our economy, federal, state and local entities regulate almost every aspect of how energy is developed, deployed, and monetized. Wind farm developers face a patchwork quilt of municipal, county, state and federal regulations in getting projects to scale. 

Incentives from government sources, as well as utilities, pose both an opportunity and a threat: the market rises and falls in direct proportion to funding and incentives. Navigating these challenges takes time and legal expertise: neither of which are in abundant supply to entrepreneurs.

Development costs

Though microchips are creating ever-smaller electronics, cleantech components – such as wind turbines and photovoltaics – are huge. They can’t be developed in a garage, like Hewlett and Packard’s first oscilloscope. A new generation of biofuels that utilizes nanotechnology isn’t likely to take place out of a dorm room, as did Michael Dell’s initial business selling customized computers. What this means for sixth revolution projects is that they have much larger funding needs, at much earlier stages.

Stepping up and supporting innovation, universities – and increasingly corporations – are partnering with early stage entrepreneurs. They are providing technology resources, such as laboratories and technical support, as well as management expertise in marketing, product development, government processes, and financing. Universities get funds from technology transfer arrangements, while corporations invest in a new technologies, expanding their product base, opening new businesses, or providing cost-benefit and risk-analysis of various approaches.

But even with such help, venture capital and other private investors are needed to augment costs that cannot be born alone. These investors look to some assurance that projects will produce revenue in order to return the original investment. So concerns over the Valley of Death affects even early stage funding.

Time line to completion

So many of us balk at two year contracts for our cell phones that there is talk of making such requirements illegal. But energy projects, by their size and complexity, look out over years, if not decades. Commercial and industrial customers look to spread their costs over ten to twenty years, and contracts cover contingencies like future business failure, the sale of properties, or the prospect of renovations that may affect the long term viability of the original project.

Kevin Walsh, managing director and head of Power and Renewable Energy at GE Energy Financial Services states, “GE Energy Financial Services supports the creation of CEDA or a similar institution because it would expand the availability of low-cost capital to the projects and companies in which we invest, and it would help expand the market for technology supplied by other GE businesses.”

Michael Holman, analyst for Lux Research, noted that a $25 million investment in Google morphed into $1.7 billion 5 years later. In contrast, a leading energy storage company started with a $300 million investment, and 9 years later valuation remains uncertain. These are the kinds of barriers that can stall the drive we need for 21st century technologies.

Looking to help bridge the gap in new cleantech and biotech projects, is a proposed government-based solution called the Clean Energy Deployment Administration (CEDA). There is a house and senate version, as well as a house Green Bank bill to provide gap financing. Recently, over 42 companies, representing many industries and organizations, signed a letter to President Obama, supporting the Senate version, the “21st Century Energy Technology Deployment Act.”

Both the house and senate bills propose to create, as an office within the US Department of Energy (DOE), an administration which would be tasked with lending to risky cleantech projects for the purpose of bringing new technologies to market. CEDA would be the bridge needed to ensure the successful establishment of the green economy, by partnering with private investment to bring the funding needed to get these technologies to scale. Both versions capitalize the agency with $10 Billion (Senate) and $7.5 Billion (House), with an expected 10% loss reserve long term.

By helping a new technology move more effectively through the pipeline from idea to deployment, CEDA can substantially increase private sector investment in energy technology development and deployment. It can create a more successful US clean energy industry, with all the attendant economic and job creation benefits.

Who Benefits?

CEDA funding could be seen as beneficial for even the most unlikely corporations. Ted Horan is the Marketing and Business Development Manager for Hycrete, a company that sells a waterproof concrete. Hardly a company that springs to mind when we think about clean technologies, he recently commented on why Hycrete CEO, Richard Guinn, is a signatory on the letter to Obama:

 

“The allocation of funding for emerging clean energy technologies through CEDA is an important step in solving our energy and climate challenges. Companies on the cusp of large-scale commercial deployment will benefit greatly and help accelerate the adoption of clean energy practices throughout our economy.” 

 

In his opinion, the manufacturing and construction that is needed to push us out of a stagnating economy will be supported by innovation coming from the cleantech and biotech sectors. 

Google’s Dan Reicher, Director of Climate Change and Energy Initiatives, has been a supporter from the inception of CEDA. He has testified before both houses of Congress, and was a signatory on the letter to President Obama. Google’s interest in clean and renewable energies dates back several years. The company is actively involved in projects to cut costs of solar thermal and expand the use of plug-in vehicles, and has developed the Power Meter, a product which brings home energy management to anyone’s desktop-for free.

Financial support includes corporations like GE Energy Financial Services, Silicon Valley Venture Capital such as Kleiner, Perkins Caulfiled and Byers, and Mohr Davidow Ventures, and Energy Capital including Hudson Clean Energy and Element Partners.Can something like the senate version of CEDA leap the Valley of Death?

As Will Coleman from Mohr Davidow Ventures, said, “The Devil’s in the details.” The Senate version has two significant changes from previous proposals: an emphasis on breakthrough as opposed to conventional technologies, and political independence.

Neil Auerbach, Managing Partner, Hudson Clean Energy

The clean energy sector can be a dynamic growth engine for the US economy, but not without thoughtful government support for private capital formation. **[Government policy] promises to serve as a valuable bridging tool to accelerate private capital formation around companies facing the challenge, and can help ensure that the US remains at the forefront of the race for dominance in new energy technologies.

Breakthrough Technologies

Coleman said that “breakthrough” includes the first or second deployment of a new approach, not just the game changing science-fiction solution that finally brings us limitless energy at no cost. The Bloomberg New Energy white paper uses the term “First of Class.” Bringing solar efficiency up from 10% to 20%, or bringing manufacturing costs down by 50%, would be a breakthrough that would help us begin to compete with threats from China and India. Conventional technologies, those that are competing with existing commercialized projects, would get less emphasis.

Political Independence

Political independence is top of mind for many who spoke or provided an analysis of the bill. Michael Holman, analyst at Lux Research, expressed the strongest concerns that CEDA doesn’t focus enough on incentives to bring together innovative start-ups with larger established firms.

 

“The government itself taking on the responsibility of deciding what technologies to back isn’t likely to work-it’s an approach with a dreadful track record. That said, it is important for the federal government to lead – the current financing model for bringing new energy technologies to market is broken, and new approaches are badly needed.” 

 

For many, the senate bill has many advantages over the house bill, in providing for a decision making process that includes technologists and private sector experts. 

 

“I think both sides [of the aisle] understand this is an important program, and must enable the government to be flexible and employ a number of different approaches. The Senate version empowers CEDA to take a portfolio approach and manage risk over time, which I think is good. In the House bill, CEDA has to undergo the annual appropriation process, which runs the risk of politicizing every investment decision in isolation and before we have a chance to see the portfolio mature.” – Will Coleman, Mohr Davidow. 

 

Michael DeRosa, Managing Director of Element Partners added, 

 

“The framework must ensure the selection of practical technologies, optimization of risk/return for taxpayer dollars, and appropriate oversight for project selection and spending. **Above all, these policies must be designed with free markets principles in mind and not be subject to political process.” 

 

If history is any indication, rarely are those in the middle of game-changing events aware of their role in what will one day be well-known for their sweeping influence. But what we can see clearly now is the gap between idea and commercial maturity. CEDA certainly offers some hope that we may yet see the cleantech age grow up into adulthood. But will we act quickly enough before all of the momentum and hard work that has brought us this far falls flat as other countries take leadership roles, leaving us in the dust? 

THE GREEN ECONOMY is an information company, providing timely, credible facts and analyses on companies adapting to meet the challenges of a green future.

Markets are in transition; customers are demanding a higher quality of life, such as clean water and energy. These pressures are affecting commodity prices, access to markets, the nature of innovation and more. At the same time, infrastructure (water, energy, transportation), is becoming more – not less – localized. These changes mean opportunities and demand new partnerships to deliver increasingly complex solutions. THE GREEN ECONOMY tells those stories.

bookmark_borderImpacts of Information Technology on Society in the New Century

In the past few decades there has been a revolution in computing and communications, and all indications are that technological progress and use of information technology will continue at a rapid pace. Accompanying and supporting the dramatic increases in the power and use of new information technologies has been the declining cost of communications as a result of both technological improvements and increased competition. According to Moore’s law the processing power of microchips is doubling every 18 months. These advances present many significant opportunities but also pose major challenges. Today, innovations in information technology are having wide-ranging effects across numerous domains of society, and policy makers are acting on issues involving economic productivity, intellectual property rights, privacy protection, and affordability of and access to information. Choices made now will have long lasting consequences, and attention must be paid to their social and economic impacts.

One of the most significant outcomes of the progress of information technology is probably electronic commerce over the Internet, a new way of conducting business. Though only a few years old, it may radically alter economic activities and the social environment. Already, it affects such large sectors as communications, finance and retail trade and might expand to areas such as education and health services. It implies the seamless application of information and communication technology along the entire value chain of a business that is conducted electronically.

The impacts of information technology and electronic commerce on business models, commerce, market structure, workplace, labour market, education, private life and society as a whole.

1. Business Models, Commerce and Market Structure

One important way in which information technology is affecting work is by reducing the importance of distance. In many industries, the geographic distribution of work is changing significantly. For instance, some software firms have found that they can overcome the tight local market for software engineers by sending projects to India or other nations where the wages are much lower. Furthermore, such arrangements can take advantage of the time differences so that critical projects can be worked on nearly around the clock. Firms can outsource their manufacturing to other nations and rely on telecommunications to keep marketing, R&D, and distribution teams in close contact with the manufacturing groups. Thus the technology can enable a finer division of labour among countries, which in turn affects the relative demand for various skills in each nation. The technology enables various types of work and employment to be decoupled from one another. Firms have greater freedom to locate their economic activities, creating greater competition among regions in infrastructure, labour, capital, and other resource markets. It also opens the door for regulatory arbitrage: firms can increasingly choose which tax authority and other regulations apply.

Computers and communication technologies also promote more market-like forms of production and distribution. An infrastructure of computing and communication technology, providing 24-hour access at low cost to almost any kind of price and product information desired by buyers, will reduce the informational barriers to efficient market operation. This infrastructure might also provide the means for effecting real-time transactions and make intermediaries such as sales clerks, stock brokers and travel agents, whose function is to provide an essential information link between buyers and sellers, redundant. Removal of intermediaries would reduce the costs in the production and distribution value chain. The information technologies have facilitated the evolution of enhanced mail order retailing, in which goods can be ordered quickly by using telephones or computer networks and then dispatched by suppliers through integrated transport companies that rely extensively on computers and communication technologies to control their operations. Nonphysical goods, such as software, can be shipped electronically, eliminating the entire transport channel. Payments can be done in new ways. The result is disintermediation throughout the distribution channel, with cost reduction, lower end-consumer prices, and higher profit margins.

The impact of information technology on the firms’ cost structure can be best illustrated on the electronic commerce example. The key areas of cost reduction when carrying out a sale via electronic commerce rather than in a traditional store involve physical establishment, order placement and execution, customer support, strong, inventory carrying, and distribution. Although setting up and maintaining an e-commerce web site might be expensive, it is certainly less expensive to maintain such a storefront than a physical one because it is always open, can be accessed by millions around the globe, and has few variable costs, so that it can scale up to meet the demand. By maintaining one ‘store’ instead of several, duplicate inventory costs are eliminated. In addition, e-commerce is very effective at reducing the costs of attracting new customers, because advertising is typically cheaper than for other media and more targeted. Moreover, the electronic interface allows e-commerce merchants to check that an order is internally consistent and that the order, receipt, and invoice match. Through e-commerce, firms are able to move much of their customer support on line so that customers can access databases or manuals directly. This significantly cuts costs while generally improving the quality of service. E-commerce shops require far fewer, but high-skilled, employees. E-commerce also permits savings in inventory carrying costs. The faster the input can be ordered and delivered, the less the need for a large inventory. The impact on costs associated with decreased inventories is most pronounced in industries where the product has a limited shelf life (e.g. bananas), is subject to fast technological obsolescence or price declines (e.g. computers), or where there is a rapid flow of new products (e.g. books, music). Although shipping costs can increase the cost of many products purchased via electronic commerce and add substantially to the final price, distribution costs are significantly reduced for digital products such as financial services, software, and travel, which are important e-commerce segments.

Although electronic commerce causes the disintermediation of some intermediaries, it creates greater dependency on others and also some entirely new intermediary functions. Among the intermediary services that could add costs to e-commerce transactions are advertising, secure online payment, and delivery. The relative ease of becoming an e-commerce merchant and setting up stores results in such a huge number of offerings that consumers can easily be overwhelmed. This increases the importance of using advertising to establish a brand name and thus generate consumer familiarity and trust. For new e-commerce start-ups, this process can be expensive and represents a significant transaction cost. The openness, global reach, and lack of physical clues that are inherent characteristics of e-commerce also make it vulnerable to fraud and thus increase certain costs for e-commerce merchants as compared to traditional stores. New techniques are being developed to protect the use of credit cards in e-commerce transactions, but the need for greater security and user verification leads to increased costs. A key feature of e-commerce is the convenience of having purchases delivered directly. In the case of tangibles, such as books, this incurs delivery costs, which cause prices to rise in most cases, thereby negating many of the savings associated with e-commerce and substantially adding to transaction costs.

With the Internet, e-commerce is rapidly expanding into a fast-moving, open global market with an ever-increasing number of participants. The open and global nature of e-commerce is likely to increase market size and change market structure, both in terms of the number and size of players and the way in which players compete on international markets. Digitized products can cross the border in real time, consumers can shop 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and firms are increasingly faced with international online competition. The Internet is helping to enlarge existing markets by cutting through many of the distribution and marketing barriers that can prevent firms from gaining access to foreign markets. E-commerce lowers information and transaction costs for operating on overseas markets and provides a cheap and efficient way to strengthen customer-supplier relations. It also encourages companies to develop innovative ways of advertising, delivering and supporting their product and services. While e-commerce on the Internet offers the potential for global markets, certain factors, such as language, transport costs, local reputation, as well as differences in the cost and ease of access to networks, attenuate this potential to a greater or lesser extent.

2. Workplace and Labour Market

Computers and communication technologies allow individuals to communicate with one another in ways complementary to traditional face-to-face, telephonic, and written modes. They enable collaborative work involving distributed communities of actors who seldom, if ever, meet physically. These technologies utilize communication infrastructures that are both global and always up, thus enabling 24-hour activity and asynchronous as well as synchronous interactions among individuals, groups, and organizations. Social interaction in organizations will be affected by use of computers and communication technologies. Peer-to-peer relations across department lines will be enhanced through sharing of information and coordination of activities. Interaction between superiors and subordinates will become more tense because of social control issues raised by the use of computerized monitoring systems, but on the other hand, the use of e-mail will lower the barriers to communications across different status levels, resulting in more uninhibited communications between supervisor and subordinates.

That the importance of distance will be reduced by computers and communication technology also favours telecommuting, and thus, has implications for the residence patterns of the citizens. As workers find that they can do most of their work at home rather than in a centralized workplace, the demand for homes in climatically and physically attractive regions would increase. The consequences of such a shift in employment from the suburbs to more remote areas would be profound. Property values would rise in the favoured destinations and fall in the suburbs. Rural, historical, or charming aspects of life and the environment in the newly attractive areas would be threatened. Since most telecommuters would be among the better educated and higher paid, the demand in these areas for high-income and high-status services like gourmet restaurants and clothing boutiques would increase. Also would there be an expansion of services of all types, creating and expanding job opportunities for the local population.

By reducing the fixed cost of employment, widespread telecommuting should make it easier for individuals to work on flexible schedules, to work part time, to share jobs, or to hold two or more jobs simultaneously. Since changing employers would not necessarily require changing one’s place of residence, telecommuting should increase job mobility and speed career advancement. This increased flexibility might also reduce job stress and increase job satisfaction. Since job stress is a major factor governing health there may be additional benefits in the form of reduced health costs and mortality rates. On the other hand one might also argue that technologies, by expanding the number of different tasks that are expected of workers and the array of skills needed to perform these tasks, might speed up work and increase the level of stress and time pressure on workers.

A question that is more difficult to be answered is about the impacts that computers and communications might have on employment. The ability of computers and communications to perform routine tasks such as bookkeeping more rapidly than humans leads to concern that people will be replaced by computers and communications. The response to this argument is that even if computers and communications lead to the elimination of some workers, other jobs will be created, particularly for computer professionals, and that growth in output will increase overall employment. It is more likely that computers and communications will lead to changes in the types of workers needed for different occupations rather than to changes in total employment.

A number of industries are affected by electronic commerce. The distribution sector is directly affected, as e-commerce is a way of supplying and delivering goods and services. Other industries, indirectly affected, are those related to information and communication technology (the infrastructure that enables e-commerce), content-related industries (entertainment, software), transactions-related industries (financial sector, advertising, travel, transport). eCommerce might also create new markets or extend market reach beyond traditional borders. Enlarging the market will have a positive effect on jobs. Another important issue relates to inter linkages among activities affected by e-commerce. Expenditure for e-commerce-related intermediate goods and services will create jobs indirectly, on the basis of the volume of electronic transactions and their effect on prices, costs and productivity. The convergence of media, telecommunication and computing technologies is creating a new integrated supply chain for the production and delivery of multimedia and information content. Most of the employment related to e-commerce around the content industries and communication infrastructure such as the Internet.

Jobs are both created and destroyed by technology, trade, and organizational change. These processes also underlie changes in the skill composition of employment. Beyond the net employment gains or losses brought about by these factors, it is apparent that workers with different skill levels will be affected differently. E-commerce is certainly driving the demand for IT professionals but it also requires IT expertise to be coupled with strong business application skills, thereby generating demand for a flexible, multi-skilled work force. There is a growing need for increased integration of Internet front-end applications with enterprise operations, applications and back-end databases. Many of the IT skill requirements needed for Internet support can be met by low-paid IT workers who can deal with the organizational services needed for basic web page programming. However, wide area networks, competitive web sites, and complex network applications require much more skill than a platform-specific IT job. Since the skills required for e-commerce are rare and in high demand, e-commerce might accelerate the up skilling trend in many countries by requiring high-skilled computer scientists to replace low-skilled information clerks, cashiers and market salespersons.

3. Education

Advances in information technology will affect the craft of teaching by complementing rather than eliminating traditional classroom instruction. Indeed the effective instructor acts in a mixture of roles. In one role the instructor is a supplier of services to the students, who might be regarded as its customers. But the effective instructor occupies another role as well, as a supervisor of students, and plays a role in motivating, encouraging, evaluating, and developing students. For any topic there will always be a small percentage of students with the necessary background, motivation, and self-discipline to learn from self-paced workbooks or computer assisted instruction. For the majority of students, however, the presence of a live instructor will continue to be far more effective than a computer assisted counterpart in facilitating positive educational outcomes. The greatest potential for new information technology lies in improving the productivity of time spent outside the classroom. Making solutions to problem sets and assigned reading materials available on the Internet offers a lot of convenience. E-mail vastly simplifies communication between students and faculty and among students who may be engaged in group projects. Advances in information technology will affect the craft of teaching by complementing rather than eliminating traditional classroom instruction. Indeed the effective instructor acts in a mixture of roles. In one role the instructor is a supplier of services to the students, who might be regarded as its customers. But the effective instructor occupies another role as well, as a supervisor of students, and plays a role in motivating, encouraging, evaluating, and developing students. For any topic there will always be a small percentage of students with the necessary background, motivation, and self-discipline to learn from self-paced workbooks or computer assisted instruction. For the majority of students, however, the presence of a live instructor will continue to be far more effective than a computer assisted counterpart in facilitating positive educational outcomes. The greatest potential for new information technology lies in improving the productivity of time spent outside the classroom. Making solutions to problem sets and assigned reading materials available on the Internet offers a lot of convenience. E-mail vastly simplifies communication between students and faculty and among students who may be engaged in group projects.

Although distance learning has existed for some time, the Internet makes possible a large expansion in coverage and better delivery of instruction. Text can be combined with audio/ video, and students can interact in real time via e-mail and discussion groups. Such technical improvements coincide with a general demand for retraining by those who, due to work and family demands, cannot attend traditional courses. Distance learning via the Internet is likely to complement existing schools for children and university students, but it could have more of a substitution effect for continuing education programmes. For some degree programmes, high-prestige institutions could use their reputation to attract students who would otherwise attend a local facility. Owing to the Internet’s ease of access and convenience for distance learning, overall demand for such programmes will probably expand, leading to growth in this segment of e-commerce.

As shown in the previous section, high level skills are vital in a technology-based and knowledge intensive economy. Changes associated with rapid technological advances in industry have made continual upgrading of professional skills an economic necessity. The goal of lifelong learning can only be accomplished by reinforcing and adapting existing systems of learning, both in public and private sectors. The demand for education and training concerns the full range of modern technology. Information technologies are uniquely capable of providing ways to meet this demand. Online training via the Internet ranges from accessing self-study courses to complete electronic classrooms. These computer-based training programmes provide flexibility in skills acquisition and are more affordable and relevant than more traditional seminars and courses.

4. Private Life and Society

Increasing representation of a wide variety of content in digital form results in easier and cheaper duplication and distribution of information. This has a mixed effect on the provision of content. On the one hand, content can be distributed at a lower unit cost. On the other hand, distribution of content outside of channels that respect intellectual property rights can reduce the incentives of creators and distributors to produce and make content available in the first place. Information technology raises a host of questions about intellectual property protection and new tools and regulations have to be developed in order to solve this problem.

Many issues also surround free speech and regulation of content on the Internet, and there continue to be calls for mechanisms to control objectionable content. However it is very difficult to find a sensible solution. Dealing with indecent material involves understanding not only the views on such topics but also their evolution over time. Furthermore, the same technology that allows for content altering with respect to decency can be used to filter political speech and to restrict access to political material. Thus, if censorship does not appear to be an option, a possible solution might be labelling. The idea is that consumers will be better informed in their decisions to avoid objectionable content.

The rapid increase in computing and communications power has raised considerable concern about privacy both in the public and private sector. Decreases in the cost of data storage and information processing make it likely that it will become practicable for both government and private data-mining enterprises to collect detailed dossiers on all citizens. Nobody knows who currently collects data about individuals, how this data is used and shared or how this data might be misused. These concerns lower the consumers’ trust in online institutions and communication and, thus, inhibit the development of electronic commerce. A technological approach to protecting privacy might by cryptography although it might be claimed that cryptography presents a serious barrier to criminal investigations.

It is popular wisdom that people today suffer information overload. A lot of the information available on the Internet is incomplete and even incorrect. People spend more and more of their time absorbing irrelevant information just because it is available and they think they should know about it. Therefore, it must be studied how people assign credibility to the information they collect in order to invent and develop new credibility systems to help consumers to manage the information overload.

Technological progress inevitably creates dependence on technology. Indeed the creation of vital infrastructure ensures dependence on that infrastructure. As surely as the world is now dependent on its transport, telephone, and other infrastructures, it will be dependent on the emerging information infrastructure. Dependence on technology can bring risks. Failures in the technological infrastructure can cause the collapse of economic and social functionality. Blackouts of long-distance telephone service, credit data systems, and electronic funds transfer systems, and other such vital communications and information processing services would undoubtedly cause widespread economic disruption. However, it is probably impossible to avoid technological dependence. Therefore, what must be considered is the exposure brought from dependence on technologies with a recognizable probability of failure, no workable substitute at hand, and high costs as a result of failure.

The ongoing computing and communications revolution has numerous economic and social impacts on modern society and requires serious social science investigation in order to manage its risks and dangers. Such work would be valuable for both social policy and technology design. Decisions have to be taken carefully. Many choices being made now will be costly or difficult to modify in the future.